Chapter 12420536

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Chapter Number8
Chapter TitleChapter VIII. WASHINGTON, THE LEGISLATURE, AND THE PRESIDENT'S HOUSE.
Chapter Urlhttp://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article12420536
Full Date1843-05-20
Page Number4
Corrections5
Word Count6963
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Last Corrected2010-06-30
Newspaper TitleThe Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954)
Trove TitleAmerican Notes for General Circulation
article text

AMERICAN NOTES

FOR

GENERAL CIRCULATION.

BY CHARLES DICKENS.

CHAPTER VIII.

WASHINGTON, THE LEGISLATURE, AND

THE PRESIDENT'S HOUSE.  

WE left Philadelphia by steamboat, at six o'clock one very cold morning, and turned our faces towards Washington.

In the course of this day's journey, as on subsequent occasions, we encountered

some Englishmen (small farmers perhaps, or country publicans at home), who were settled in America, and were travelling on their own affairs. Of all grades and kinds of men that jostle one in the public con- veyance of the States, these are often the most intolerable and the most insufferable companions. United to every disagree- able characteristic that the worst kind of American travellers possess, these country men of ours display an amount of insolent conoeit and cool assumption of superiority,

quite monstrous to behold. In the coarse familiarity of their approach, and the effrontery of their inquisitiveness (which they are in great haste to assert, as if they panted to revenge themselves upon the old restraints of home) they surpass any decent native specimens that came within my range of observation : and I often grew   so patriotic when I saw and heard them, that I would cheerfully have submitted to a reasonable fine, if I could have given any other country in the whole world, the honour of claiming them for its children.

As Washington may be called the head- quarters of tobacco-tinctured saliva, the time is come when I must confess, without any disguise, that the prevalence of those two odious practices of chewing and expec- torating began about this time to be any- thing but agreeable, and soon became most offensive and sickening. In all the public places of America this filthy cus- tom is recognised. In the courts of law, the judge has his spittoon, the crier his, the witness his, and the prisoner his ; while the jurymen and spectators are pro- vided for, as so many men who, in the course of nature, must desire to spit in- cessantly. In the hospitals, the students of medicine are requested, by notices upon the walls, to eject their tobacco juice into the boxes provided for that purpose, and not to discolour the stairs. In public buildings, visitors are implored, through the same agency, to squirt the essence of their quids, or ' plugs,' as I have heard them called by gentlemen learned in this kind of sweetmeat, into the national spit-

toons, and not about the bases of the mar- ble columns. But in some parts this cus- tom is inseparably mixed up with every meal and morning call, and with all the transactions of social life. The stranger who follows in the track I took myself, will find it in its full bloom and glory, luxuriant in all its alarming recklessness at Washington ; and let him not persuade himself (as I once did to my shame) that previous tourists have exaggerated its ex- tent. The thing itself is an exaggeration of nastiness which cannot be outdone.

On board this steam-boat there were two young gentlemen, with shirt collars reversed as usual, and armed with very big walking-slicks ; who planted two seats in the middle of the deck, at a distance of some four paces apart ; took out their tobacco-boxes, and sat down opposite each other, to chew. In less than a quarter of an hour's time, these hopeful youths had shed about them, on the clean boards, a copious shower of yellow rain, clearing, by that means, a kind of magic circle,

within whose limits no intruders dared to   come, and which they never failed to re-   fresh and re-refresh before a spot was dry.   This being before breakfast, rather dis- poses me, I confess, to nausea ; but look- ing attentively at one of the expectorators, I plainly saw that he was young in chew-

ing, and felt inwardly uneasy himself. A   glow of delight came over me at this dis-

covery ; and as I marked his face turn   paler and paler, and saw the ball of to- bacco in his left cheek quiver with his

suppressed agony, while yet he spat, and   chewed, and spat again, in emulation of his older friend, I could have fallen on his neck and implored him to go on for

hours.  

We all sat down to a comfortable break- fast in the cabin below, where there was n0 more hurry or confusion than at such a meal in England, and where there was certainly greater politeness exhibited than at most of our stage-coach banquets. At about nine o'clock we arrived at the rail- road station, and went on by the cars. At noon we turned out again, to cross a wide river in another steam-boat ; landed at a continuation of the railroad on the

opposite shore, and went on by other   cars, in which, in the course of the next

hour or so, we crossed, by wooden bridges,   each a mile in length, two creeks, called   respectively Great and Little Gunpowder.  

The water in both was blackened with

flights of canvas-backed ducks, which are

most delicious eating, and abound here-   abouts at that season of the year.  

These bridges are of wood, have no parapet, and are only just wide enough for the passage of the trains ; which, in the event of the smallest accident, would

inevitably be plunged into the river. They   are startling contrivances, and are most   agreeable when passed.  

We stopped to dine at Baltimore, and   being now in Maryland, were waited on,   for the first time, by slaves. The sensa-

tion of exacting any service from human   creatures who are bought and sold, and   being, for the time, a party as it were to   their condition, is not an enviable one.   The Institution exists, perhaps, in its least   repulsive and most mitigated form in such a town as this ; but it is slavery ; and though I was, with respect to it, an inno-  

cent man, its presence filled me with a sense of shame and self-reproach.  

After dinner we went down to the rail- road again and took our seats in the cars for Washington. Being rather early, those men and boys who happened to have no- thing particular to do, and were curious in foreigners, came (according to custom) round the carriage in which I sat ; let down all the windows; thrust in their heads and shoulders ; hooked themselves on conveniently by their elbows; and fell to comparing notes on the subject of my personal appearance, with as much in- difference as if I were a stuffed figure. I never gained so much uncomprising infor- mation with reference to my own nose and eyes, the various impressions wrought by my mouth and chin, on different minds, and how my head looked when it is viewed from behind, as on these occasions. Some gentlemen were only satisfied by exer- cising weir sense of touch ; and the boys (who are surprisingly precocious in Ame- rica) were seldom satisfied even by that, but would return to the charge over and over again. Many a budding president has walked into my room, with his cap   on his head, and his hands in his pockets, and stared at me for two whole hours : occasionally refreshing himself with a  

tweak at his nose, or a draught from the

watering ; or by walking to the windows and inviting other boys in the street be- low to come up and do likewise : crying "Here is !" "Come on !" " Bring all your brothers !" with other hospitable

entreaties of that nature.

We reached Washington at about half past six that evening, and had upon the way a beautiful view of the Capitol, which is a fine building of the Corinthian order, placed upon a noble and commanding emi- nence. Arrived at the hotel, I saw no more of the place that night ; being very tired, and glad to get to bed.

Breakfast over next morning, I walk about the streets for an hour or two, and, coming home, throw up the window in the front and back, and look out. Here is Washington fresh in my mind and under

my eye.

Take the worst part of the City Road and Pentonville, preserving all their oddi- ties, but especially the small shops and dwellings, occupied there (but not in Wash-

ington) by furniture-brokers, keepers of poor eating-houses, and fanciers of birds. Burn the whole down ; build it up again

in wood and plaster ; widen it a little ;   throw in part of St. John's Wood ; put green blinds outside all the private houses ;

with a red curtain and a white one in

every window ; plough up all the roads ; plant a great deal of coarse turf in every place where it ought not to be ; erect three handsome buildings in stone and marble, anywhere, but the more entirely out of everybody's way the better ; call

one the Post Office, one the Patent Office,   and one the Treasury ; make it scorching   hot in the morning, and freezing cold in the afternoon, with an occasional tornado of wind and dust ; leave a brickfield without the bricks, in all central places where a street may naturally be expected : and that's Washington.

The hotel in which we live, is a long row of small houses fronting on the street, and opening at the back upon a common yard, in which hangs a great triangle. Whenever a servant is wanted, somebody beats on this triangle from one stroke up to seven, according to the number of the house in which his presence is required ; and as all the servants are always being wanted, and none of them ever come, this

enlivening engine is in full performance the whole day through. Clothes are dry- ing in this same yard ; female slaves, with cotton handkerchiefs twisted round their

heads, are running to and fro on the hotel business ; black waiters cross and recross with dishes in their hands ; two great dogs are playing upon a mound of loose bricks in the centre of the little square ; a pig is   turning up his stomach to the sun, and grunting " that's comfortable !" ; and neither the men, nor the women, nor the dogs, nor the pig, nor any created crea- ture, takes the smallest notice of the tri- angle, which is tingling madly all the

time.

I walk to the front window, and look across the road upon a long, straggling row of houses, one story high, terminating nearly opposite, but a little to the left, in a melancholy piece of waste ground with frowzy grass, which looks like a small piece of country that has taken to drink- ing, and has quite lost itself. Standing any how and all wrong, upon this open space, like something meteoric that, has fallen down from the moon, is an odd, lop-sided, one-eyed kind of wooden build- ing, that looks like a church, with a flag- staff as long as itself sticking out of a steeple something larger than a tea-chest. Under the window, is a small stand of coaches, whose slave-drives are sunning themselves on the steps of our door, and talking idly together. The three most obstrusive houses near at hand, are the three meanest. On one—a shop, which never has anything in the window, and never has the door open—is painted in large characters, " THE CITY LUNCH." At another which looks like the back way to somewhere else, but is an independent building in itself, oysters are procurable in every style. At the third, which is a very, very little tailor's shop, pants are fixed to order : or, in other words, pantaloons are

made to measure. And that is our street

in Washington.

It is sometimes called the City of Mag- nificent Distances, but it might with greater propriety be termed the City of Magnificent Intentions ; for it is only on tailing a bird's-eye view of it from the top of the Capitol, that one can at all compre- hend the vast designs of its projector, on aspiring Frenchman. Spacious avenues, that begin in nothing, and lead nowhere ; streets, mile-long, that only want houses, roads, and inhabitants ; public buildings that need but a public to be complete ; and ornaments of great thoroughfares, which only lack great thoroughfares to ornament-are its lending features. One might fancy the season over, and most of the houses gone out of town for ever with

their masters. To the admirers of cities

it is a Barmecide Feast ; a pleasant field for the imagination to rove in ; a monu- ment raised to a diseased project, with not even a legible inscription to record its departed greatness.

Such as it is, it is likely to remain. It was originally chosen for the seat of Go- vernment, as a means of averting the con- flicting jealousies and interests of the     different States; and very probably too as being remote from mobs : a consideration not to be slighted, even in America. It has no trade or commerce of its own ; having little or no population beyond the President and his establishment ; the members of the legislative who reside there during the session ; the Government clerks and officers employed in the various departments ; the keepers of the hotels and boarding-houses ; and the tradesmen who supply their tables. It is very un- healthy. Few people would live in Wash- ington, I take it, who were not obliged to reside there ; and the tides of emigration and speculation, those rapid and regardless currents, are little likely to flow at any time towards such dull and sluggish

water.

The principal features of the Capitol,

are, of course, the two Houses of Assembly.   But there is, besides, in the centre of the building, a fine rotunda, ninety-six feet in diameter, and ninety-six high, whose cir-   cular wall is divided into compartments, ornamented by historical pictures. Four of these have for their subjects prominent events in the revolutionary struggle. They were painted by Colonel Trumbull, him- self s member of Washington's staff at the  

time of their occurrence ; from which cir- cumstance they derive a peculiar interest of their own.

In this same hall Mr. Greenough's large statue of Washington has been lately placed. It has great merits of course, but it struck me as being rather strained and violent for its subject. I could wish, how- ever, to have seen it in a better light than it can ever be viewed in, where it stands.

There is a very pleasant and commodious library in the Capitol; and from a balcony in front, the bird's eye view, of which I have just spoken, may be had, together with a beautiful prospect of the adjacent country. In one of the ornamented por-  

tions of the building, there is a figure of Justice ; whereunto the Guide Book says, " The artist at first contemplated giving more of nudity, but he was warned that the public sentiment in this country would not admit of it, and in his caution he has gone, perhaps, into the opposite extreme."

Poor Justice ! she has been made to wear

much stranger garments in America than those she pines in, in the Capitol. Let us hope that she has changed her dressmaker since they were fashioned, and that the public sentiment of the country did not cut out the clothes she hides her lovely figure in, just now.

The House of Representatives is a beautiful and spacious hall, of semi-cir- cular shape, supported by handsome pillars. One part of the gallery is ap- propriated to the ladies, and there they sit in front rows, and come in, and go out, as at a play or concert. The chair is canopied, and raised considerably above the floor of the House ; and every mem- ber has an easy chair and a writing desk to himself; which is denounced by some people out of doors as a most unfortunate and injudicious arrangement, tending to long sittings and prosaic speeches. It is an elegant chamber to look at, but a singularly bad one for all purposes of hearing. The Senate, which is smaller, is free from this objection, and is exceed- ingly well adapted to the uses for which it is designed. The sittings, I need hardly add, take place in the day ; and the parliamentary forms are modelled on those of the old country.

I was sometimes asked, in my progress through other places, whether I had not been very much impressed by the heads of the lawmakers at Washington ; mean- ing not their chiefs and leaders, but lite- rally their individual and personal heads, whereon their hair grew, and whereby the phrenological character of each legislator was expressed ; and I almost as often struck ray questioner dumb with indignant consternation by answering "No, that I didn't remember being at all overcome." As I must, at whatever hazard, repeat the avowal here, I will follow it up by relating my impressions on this subject in as few words as possible.

In the first place, it may be from some imperfect development of my organ of veneration. I do not remember having ever fainted away, or having even been moved to tears of joyful pride, at sight of any legislative body. I have borne the House of Commons like a man, and have yielded to no weakness, but slumber, in the House of Lords, I have seen elec- tions for borough and county, and have never been impelled (no matter which party won) to damage my hat by throwing it up into the air in triumph, or to crack my voice by shouting forth any reference to our Glorious Constitution, to the noble purity of our independent voters, or the unimpeachable integrity of our indepen- dent members. Having withstood such strong attacks upon my fortitude, it is possible that I may be of a cold and in- sensible temperament, amounting to icy- ness in such matters ; and therefore my impressions of the live pillars of the Capitol at Washington must be received with such grains of allowance as this free confession may seem to demand.

Did I see in this public body, an assem- blage of men, bound together in the sacred names of Liberty and Freedom, and so as- serting the chaste dignity of those twin goddesses, in all their discussions, as to exalt at once the Eternal Principles to which their names are given, and their own

character and the character of their coun- trymen, in the admiring eyes of the whole

world ?

It was but a week, since an aged, grey- haired man, a lasting honour to the land that gave him birth, who has done good service to his country, as his forefathers did, and who will be remembered scores upon scores of years after the worms bred in its corruptions, are but so many grains of dust—it was but a week, since this old man stood for days upon his trial before this very body, charged with having dated to assert the infamy of that traffic, which has for its accursed merchandise men and women, and their unborn children. Yes. And publicly exhibited in the same city all the while ; gilded, framed, and glazed ; hung up for general admiration ; shown to strangers, rot with shame, but pride ; its face not turned towards the wall, itself not taken down and burned ; is the unani- mous declaration of the thirteen United

States of America, which solemnly declares that all men are created equal ; and are

endowed by their Creator with the in- alienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness !

It was not a month, since the same body had sat calmly by, and heard a man, one of themselves, with oaths which beggars in their drink reject, threaten to cut another's throat from ear to ear. There he sat, among them ; not crushed by the general feeling of the assembly, but as good a man

as any.

There was but a week to come, and another of that body, for doing his duty to those who sent him there ; for claiming in a Republic the liberty and freedom of expressing their sentiments, and making known their prayer ; would be tried, found  

guilty, and have strong censure passed upon him by the rest. His was a grave   offence indeed ; for years before he had  

risen up and said, "A gang of male and female slaves for sale, warranted to breed like cattle, linked to each other by iron fetters, are passing now along the open street beneath the windows of your Tem- ple of Equality ! Look ! " But there are many kinds of hunters engaged in the pursuit of happiness, and they go variously armed. It is the inalienable right of some among them, to take the field after their happiness, equipped with cat and cart- whip, stocks, and iron collar, and to shout their view holla ! (always in praise of liberty), to the music of clanking chains and bloody stripes.

Where sat the many legislators of coarse threats ; of words and blows, such as coalheavers deal upon each other, when they forget their breeding ? On every side. Every session had its anecdotes of that kind, and the actors were all there.

Did I recognise in this assembly, a body of men, who applying themselves in a new

world to correct some of the falsehoods

and vices of the old, purified the avenues to public life, paved the dirty ways to place and power, debated and made laws for the common good, and had no party

but their country ?  

I saw in them, the wheels that move the meanest perversion of virtuous Political Machinery that the worst tools ever wrought. Despicable trickery at elections : under-handed tamperings with public offi- cers ; cowardly attacks upon opponents, with scurrilous newspapers for shields, and hired pens for daggers ; shameful truck- lings to mercenary knaves, whose claim to be considered, is, that every day and week they sow new crops, of ruin with their venal types, which are the dragon's teeth of yore, in everything but sharpness ; sidings   and abettings of every bad inclination in   the popular mind, and artful suppressions  

of all its good influences ; such things as these, and in a word, dishonest faction in its most depraved and most unblushing form, stared out from every corner of the

crowded hall.

Did I see among them, the intelligence and refinement : the true, honest, pa-

triotic heart of America ? Here and there

were drops of its blood and life, but they   scarely coloured the stream of desperate adventures which sets that way for profit and for pay. It is the game of these men, and of their profligate organs, to make the   strife of politics so fierce and brutal, and so   destructive of all self-respect in worthy

men, that sensitive and delicate-minded   persons, shall be kept aloof, and they, and such as they, be left to battle out their selfish views, unchecked. And thus this lowest of all scrambling fights goes on, and they who in other countries would, from their intelligence and station, most aspire to make the laws, do here recoil the furthest from that degradation.

That there are, among the representa- tries of the people in both Houses, and among all parties, some men of high cha- racter and great abilities, I need not say.

The foremost among those politicians who are known in Europe, have been already   described, and I see no reason to depart from the rule I have laid down for my guidance, of abstaining from all mention of   individuals. It will be sufficient to add, that to the most favourable accounts that have been written of them, I more than fully and most heartily subscribe ; and that personal intercourse and free communica- tion have bred within me, not the result predicted in the very doubtful proverb, but increased admiration and respect. They   are striking men to look it, hard to deceive,     promp to act, lions in energy, Crichtons in varied accomplishments, Indians in fire of eye and gesture. Americans in strong and generous impulse ; and they as well repre- sent the honour and wisdom of then coun- try at home, as the distinguished gentle- man who is now its minister at the British Court sustains its highest character abroad.

I visited both houses nearly every day during my stay in Washington. On my initiatory visit to the House of Repre- sentatives, they divided against a decision of the chair, but the chair won. The second time I went, the member who was speaking, being interrupted by a laugh, mimicked it, as one child would in quar- relling with another, and added, " that he would make honourable gentlemen oppo-   site, sing out a little more on the other side of their mouths presently." But in-   terruptions are rare ; the speaker being usually heard in silence. There are more quarrels than with us, and more threatenings than gentlemen are accus- tomed to exchange in any civilised society   of which we have record ; but farm-yard     imitations have not as yet been imported from the Parliament of the United King- dom. The feature in oratory which ap- pears to be most practised, and most relished, is the constant repetition of the

same idea or shadow of an idea in fresh words ; and the inquiry out of doors is not, " What did he say ? " but " How long did he speak ? " These, however, are but enlargements of a principle which prevails elsewhere.

The senate is a dignified and decorous body, and its proceedings are conducted with much gravity and order. Both houses are handsomely carpeted, but the state to which these carpets are reduced     by the universal disregard of the spittoon,     with which every honourable member is accommodated, and the extraordinary im- provements on the pattern which are squirted and dabbled upon it in every di-

rection, do not admit of being described, I will merely observe, that I strongly re-   commend all strangers not to look at the   floor ; and, if they happen to drop any- thing, though it be their purse, not to pick it up with an ungloved hand on any

account.

It is somewhat remarkable, too, at first, to say the least, to see so many honourable members with swelled faces, and it is scarcely less remarkable to discover that this appearance is caused by the quantity of tobacco they contrive to stow within the   hollow of the check. It is strange enough, too, to see an honouiable gentle- man leaning back in his tilted chair, with his legs on the desk before him, shaping a convenient ' plug ' with his penknife, and   when it is quite ready for use, shooting the old one from his mouth, as from a pop-   gun, and clapping the new one in its place.

I was surprised to observe, that even steady old chewers of great experience are not always good marksmen, which has rather inclined me to doubt that general proficiency with the rifle, of which we have heard so much in England. Several gen- tlemen called upon me who, in the course   of conversation, frequently missed the spittoon at five paces ; and one (but he   was certainly shortsighted) mistook the closed sash for the open window, at three. On another occasion, when I dined out, and was sitting with two ladies and some gen-

tlemen round a fire before dinner, one of the company fell short of the fireplace six distinct times. I am disposed to think, however, that this was occasioned by his not aiming it that object, as there was a   white marble hearth before the fender, which was more convenient, and may have suited his purpose better.

The Patent Office at Washington, fur- nishes in extraordinary example of Ame- rican enterprise and ingenuity ; for the immense number of models it contains, are the accumulated inventions of only five years, the whole of the previous collec- tion having been destroyed by fire. The elegant structure in which they are ar- ranged, is one of design rather than exe- cution, for there is but one side erected out of four, though the works are stopped. The Post Office is a very compact, and very beautiful building. In one of the departments, among a collection of rare and curious articles, are deposited the presents which have been made from time

to time to the American Ambassadors at foreign courts by the various potentates to whom they were the accredited agents of the Republic ; gifts which by the law they are not permitted to retain. I   confess that I looked upon this as a very     painful exhibition, and one by no means flattering to the national standard of honesty and honour. That can scarcely be a high state of moral feeling which imagines a gentleman of repute and station, likely to be corrupted, in the discharge of   his duty, by the present of a snuff-box, or   a richly-mounted sword, or a Eastern shawl ; and surely the Nation who reposes   confidence in her appointed servants, is   likely to be better served, than she who makes them the subject of such very mean and paltry suspicions.  

At George Town in the suburbs, there is a Jesuit College, delightfully situated, and, so far as I had an opportunity of seeing, well managed. Many persons  

who are not members of the Romish Church, avail themselves, I believe, of these institutions, and of the advantageous   opportunities they afford for the education of their children. The heights in this

neighbourhood, above the Patomac River, are very picturesque ; and are free, I should conceive, from some of the insalu- brities of Washington. The air, at that elevation, was quite cool and refreshing, when in the city it was burning hot.

The President's mansion is more like   an English club house, both within and without, than any other kind of establish- ment with which I can compare it. The ornamental ground about it has been laid   out in garden walks ; they are pretty and   agreeable to the eye ; though they have that uncomfortable air of having been   made yesterday, which is far from favour-     able to the display of such beauties.    

My first visit to this house was on the morning after my arrival, when I was carried thither by an official gentleman,   who was so kind as to charge himself with   my presentation to the President.

We entered a large hall, and having   twice or thrice rung a bell which nobody answered, walked without further cere- mony through the rooms on the ground floor, as divers other gentlemen (mostly with their hats on and their hands in their pockets) were doing very leisurely.   Some of these had ladies with them, to whom they were showing the premises ; others were lounging on the chairs and sofas ;   others, in a perfect state of exhaustion from listlessness, were yawning drearily.

The greater portion of this assemblage were rather asserting their supremacy   than doing anything else, as they had no   particular business there that anybody knew of. A few were closely eyeing the moveables, as if to make quite sure that the President (who was far from popular) had not made away with any of the furniture, or sold the fixtures for his private benefit.

After glancing at these loungers, who were scattered over a pretty drawing- room, opening upon a terrace which com- manded a beautiful prospect of the river and adjacent country, and who were saun-   tering too about a larger state-room called   the eastern drawing-room, we went up stairs into another chamber, where were certain visitors waiting for audiences. At sight of my conductor, a black, in plain clothes and yellow slippers, who was gliding   noiselessly about, and whispering messages   in the ears of the more impatient, made a sign of recognition, and glided off to an-

nounce him.

We had previously looked into another     chamber fitted all round with a great bare wooden desk of counter, whereon lay files of newspapers, to which sundry gentlemen were referring. But there were no such means of beguiling the time in this apart- ment, which was as unpromising and tire- some as any waiting room in one of our public establishments, or any physician's dining-room during his hours of consulta-  

tion at home.

There were some fifteen or twenty persons in the room. One, a tall, wiry, muscular old man, from the west, sunburnt and swarthy, with a brown white hat on his knees, and a giant umbrella resting between his legs ; who sat bolt upright in his chair, frowning steadily at the carpet, and twitch-   ing the hard lines about his mouth as if he had made up his mind 'to fix' the Presi- dent on what he had to say, and would not bait him a grain. Another, a Kentucky farmer, six feet six in height, with his hat   on, and his hands under his coat tails, who leaned against the wall and kicked the floor with his heel, as though he had Time's   head under his shoe, and were literally "killing" him. A third, an oval faced,   bilious-looking man, with sleek black hair   cropped close, and whiskers and beard shaved down to blue dots, who sucked the   head of a thick stick, and from time to time took it out of his mouth, to see how it was getting on. A fourth did nothing but whistle, a fifth did nothing but spit, and, indeed, all these gentlemen were so very perse- vering and energetic in this latter parti- cular, and bestowed their favours so abun- dantly upon the carpet, that I take it for granted that presidential housemaids have       high wages, or, to speak more genteelly, an ample amount of "compensation," which is the American word for salary, in the case of all public servants.  

We had not waited in this room many minutes, before the black messenger re- turned, and conducted us into another of smaller dimensions, where, at a business- like table, coveted with papers, sat the President himself. He looked somewhat worn and anxious, and well he might, being at war with everybody—but the expression of his face was mild and plea- sant, and his manner was remarkably unaffected, gentlemanly, and agreeable. I thought that in his whole carriage and   demeanour, he became his station singu- larly well.

Being advised that the sensible etiquette of the republican court, admitted of a traveller, like myself, declining, without any     impropriety, an invitation to dinner, which   did not reach me until I had concluded my arrangements for leaving Washington some day before that to which it referred, I only returned to this house once. It was on the occasion of one of those general assemblies which are held on certain nights   between the hours of nine and twelve o'clock, and arc called, lather oddly,

Levees.  

I went, with my wife, at about ten. There was a pretty dense crowd of car- riages and people in the court yard, and so

far as I could make out, there were no very clear regulations for the taking up or setting down of company. There were certainly no policemen to soothe startled horses, either by sawing at then bridles or     flourishing truncheons in their eyes ; and I am ready to make oath that no inoffen- sive persons were knocked violently on the head, or poked acutely in their backs or stomachs, or brought to a stand-still by any such gentle means, and then taken into custody for not moving on. But there was no confusion or disorder. Our carriage reached the porch in its turn,   without any blustering, swearing, shouting,       backing, or other disturbance ; and we dis- mounted with as much ease and comfort   as though we had been escorted by the whole Metropolitan Force from A to Z in-

clusive.

The suite of rooms on the ground-floor, were lighted up ; and a military band was   playing in the hall. In the smaller draw- ing-room, the centre of a circular of com- pany, were the President and his daughter- in-law, who acted as the lady of the mansion and a very interesting, graceful, and accomplished lady too. One gentle- man who stood among this group, ap- peared to take upon himself the functions of a master of the ceremonies. I saw no

other officers and attendants, and none were needed.

The great drawing room, which I have already mentioned, and the other chambers on the ground floor, were crowded to   excess. The company was not, in our sense of the term, select, for it compre- hended persons of very many grades and classes, nor was there any great display of costly attire : indeed some of the cos- tumes may have been, for aught I know,   grotesque enough. But the decorum and propriety of behaviour which prevailed, were unbroken by any rude or disagreeable

incident, and every man, even among the       miscellaneous crowd in the hall who were admitted without any orders or tickets to look on, appealed to feel that he was a part of the Institution, and was responsible for its preserving a becoming character, and appearing to the best advantage.  

That these visitors, too, whatever their station, were not without some refinement of taste and appreciation of intellectual gifts, and gratitude to those men, who, by the peaceful exercises of great abilities, shed new charms and associations upon the homes of their countrymen, and elevate   their character in other lands, was most   earnestly testified by their reception of Washington living, my dear friend, who had recently been appointed Minister at   the court of Spain, and who was among   them that night, in his new character, for the first and last time before going abroad.     I sincerely believe that in all the madness of American politics, few public men would have been so earnestly, devotedly, and affectionately caressed, as this most charming writer : and I have seldom res- pected a public assembly more than I did this eager throng, when I saw them turn- ing with one mind from noisy orators and   officers of state, and flocking with a gene-  

rous and honest impulse round the man of quiet pursuits ; proud in his promotion as   reflecting back upon their country : and grateful to him with their whole hearts for the store of graceful fancies he had poured out among them. Long may he dispense   such treasures with unsparing hand, and long may they remember him as worthily !

The term we had assigned for the dura-  

tion of our stay in Washington was now at an end, and we were to begin to travel ; for the railroad distances we had traversed yet, in journeying among these older   towns, are, on that great continent, looked   upon as nothing.  

I had at first intended going South—to Charleston. But when I came to con-  

sider the length of time which this journey would occupy, and the premature heat of   the season, which even at Washington had been often very trying ; and weighed, more-   over, in my own mind, the pain of living in the constant contemplation of slavery, against the more than doubtful chances of my ever seeing it, in the time I had to spare, stripped of the disguises in which it would certainly be dressed, and so adding any item to the host of facts al-

ready heaped together on the subject ; I began to listen to old whisperings, which had often been present to me at home in     England, when I little thought of ever being here, and to dream again of cities growing up, like palaces in fairy tales, among the wilds and forests of the West.

The advice I received in most quarters   when I began to yield to my desire of travelling towards that point of the compass was, according to custom, sufficiently cheerless ; my companion being threatened with more perils, dangers, and discomforts, than I can remember 0r would   catalogue if I could ; but of which it will be sufficient to remark that blowings-up   in steam-boats and breakings down in     coaches were among the least. But, having a western route sketched out for me by the best and kindest authority to which I could have resorted, and putting   no great faith in these discouragements, I   soon determined on my plan of action.

This was to travel south only to Rich-     mond in Virginia ; and then to turn, and shape our course for the Far West ; whither I beseech the readers company in

a new volume.